"The Bard" by John MartinHow to Write a Rhupunt (with Example) The Society March 23, 2017 For Educators, Poetry, Poetry Forms 7 Comments By Elizabeth Spencer Spragins Poetry has been an integral component of Welsh culture for centuries. Indeed, the Welsh word “bardd” (poet) has been traced back to 100 B.C. Depending on their skills, Welsh poets held one of three official ranks, and earning the designation of “chief poet” was a high honor. Every noble house in Wales boasted its own resident bard until the English legal system was imposed on the country in the 16th century. Although English law abolished the position of “chief poet,” the passion for poetry persisted. Welsh poets demonstrated their skills through competitions with strict structural requirements (forerunners of the modern Welsh Eisteddfod). In the 14th century these poetic forms were codified into 24 official meters with three classes: the englynion, the cywydd meters, and the awdl (ode) meters (which include the rhupunt). The rhupunt (pronounced hree’-pint), like other members of the awdl class, is stanzaic. Each stanza may have three, four, or five lines, and each line has four syllables. Within each stanza, all lines, with the exception of the last, share a single end rhyme. All of the last lines share a secondary end rhyme. Thus, a rhupunt with four-line stanzas would have the following rhyme scheme: xxxa xxxa xxxa xxxb xxxc xxxc xxxc xxxb xxxd xxxd xxxd xxxb And so on. In a variation known as the long rhupunt, each stanza is written as a single line, and the lines are paired in couplets. This format allows greater flexibility with the end rhyme, as illustrated below: xxxaxxxaxxxaxxxb xxxcxxxcxxxcxxxb xxxdxxxdxxxdxxxe xxxfxxxfxxxfxxxe When written in the Welsh language, the awdl meters usually adhere to cynhanedd (rules of harmony governing consonance or alliteration). Although a rhupunt written in English does not necessarily follow this tradition, using such techniques to echo sounds within the lines can enhance the musicality of the poem. My poem “Sedona” illustrates the structure of a rhupunt with four-line stanzas. Sedona A Rhupunt By Elizabeth Spencer Spragins Deep shadows fade Red rock cascade To purpled jade— Sun sparks ignite. Stone sentries stare Sightless through air At treadless stair Spanning the height. No mortals dare Enter the lair Or linger where Spirit meets sprite. This shrine of stone And bleached white bone Hides secrets shown In the moonlight. Post your rhupunt in the comments section below. Elizabeth Spencer Spragins is a linguist, writer, poet, and editor who taught in North Carolina community colleges for more than a decade. Her tanka and bardic verse in the Celtic style have been published in England, Scotland, Canada, Indonesia, and the United States. Recent work has appeared in the Quarterday Review, Skylark, Atlas Poetica, Halcyon Days, and Peacock Journal. She lives in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Related Post ‘Passing of the Seasons’ and Other Poetry by Wan... Passing of the Seasons When snow has melted, chill has gone, and winter turns to spring, The tender buds grow on the branches where the robins sing.... Tell the world:FacebookTwitterTumblrPinterestRedditLinkedInEmail 7 Responses Kathy Figueroa March 23, 2017 Thank you for sharing this info about various Welsh poem structures. This has prompted me to try my hand at writing a “rhupunt,” which I’m including below. JUNEAU CITY Juneau city Sights are pretty Streets are gritty Tramps want spare change Ravens chatter Footsteps patter Small things matter Some things are strange A port of call For one and all With mountains tall A snow-capped range A kind greeting Pleasant meeting Make time fleeting At gold rock grange ~Kathy Figueroa Reply Kathy Figueroa March 23, 2017 I’ve revised the above-posted rhupunt, slightly. Because it was written and posted very quickly, it wasn’t as polished as it could’ve been. Here’s the revised version: JUNEAU CITY Juneau city Views are pretty Streets are gritty Tramps want spare change Ravens chatter Footsteps patter Workmen clatter Some sights are strange A port of call For one and all With mountains tall A snow-capped range A kind greeting Pleasant meeting Make time fleeting At gold rock grange ~Kathy Figueroa Reply Ruth March 24, 2017 Well done for writing a rhupunt! With such short lines and close rhymes it must be difficult. (I confess I’ve not done it myself yet… I’m hoping to do so soon.) Your images, including sounds, create a lively impression of Juneau! One point of poetic technicality / sensibility: it is best to have the accent / stressed beat in lines of poetry fall on syllables which would naturally be pronounced with emphasis. In this metre, read in English, there is a natural accent on the last syllable of the line. (Elizabeth Spraggins – please correct me here if I am wrong). In lines 1, 2, and 3 of stanzas 1, 2 and 4 of your piece, that accent falls where it would not, naturally – on the sounds citY, prettY, grittY, chattER, pattER, clattER etc. I don’t know where the emphasis naturally comes in Welsh, but it strikes me that for this poetic form to work well in English, you need to look for words with an accent on the last syllable – which usually means single-syllable words – for your rhymes at the ends of lines. Reply Ruth March 24, 2017 The comment above was addressed to Kathy – somehow I missed the first few words in copying and pasting. Ruth March 24, 2017 I decided on the subject of my first attempt below, because the beat to which it is danced is similar to the natural rhythm produced in reading a rhupunt poem. Polka Up-beat, quick pace, with sprightly grace, pairs face to face, the dancers turn. That champagne taste; his hand, her waist, their fingers laced, and flushed cheeks burn. Forget your pomp! With music, romp! Bright eyed, smile, stomp round and return. Breathe in, breathe out; those stiff or stout are falling out – time to adjourn! Reply Ruth March 24, 2017 Night Walk Through shadows – go! I must not slow… you never know what stalkers prowl. From darkness, white! swoops from a height: the silent flight of broad-winged owl. So quiet, so still. Then – flute-like thrill! high, rippling trill: unseen night-fowl. Stand. Do not lose rare notes, deep hues: the subtle muse. I doff my cowl. Reply Kathy Figueroa March 24, 2017 Hi Ruth! Thanks for your comments! I really enjoyed reading your two “rhupunts,” particularly the one about the polka, which I could relate to. 🙂 Reply Leave a Reply Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published.CommentName* Email* Website Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email.